Diploid biparental males are usually sterile but a few species that have fertile diploid males are known. Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families. SOME SPECIAL FEATURES OF HYMENOPTERA: Wings membranous, hind wings , smaller than the fore wings ,which interlock by means of hamuli, venation reduced. It is also a reference to Hymeno, the Greek god of marriage. Pamphiliidae. Ants / Wasps / Bees / Sawflies / Horntails. und die bei Berlin vorkommenden Arten derselben", "Phylogeny and Classification of Hymenoptera", "Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera", "Comparative and phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in basal hymenopterans", Hymenoptera of North America – large format reference photographs, descriptions, taxonomy, Hymenoptera images on MorphBank, a biological image database. The act of fertilization is under the voluntary control of the egg-laying female, giving her control of the sex of her offspring. [12], This clade has been studied by examining the mitochondrial DNA.
[26] In W. auropunctata the reduction is 45 fold. This is especially likely to occur in an individual whose parents were siblings or other close relatives. Xyelidae. The cladogram of external relationships, based on a 2008 DNA and protein analysis, shows the order as a clade, most closely related to endopterygote orders including the Diptera (true flies) and Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Over 150,000 living species of Hymenoptera have been described,[2][3] in addition to over 2,000 extinct ones.

With rare exceptions, larvae of the suborder Apocrita have no legs and are maggotlike in form, and are adapted to life in a protected environment. Hymenoptera species number some 115,000, and Coleoptera species number some 300,000.

This page was last edited on 17 October 2020, at 22:18. This refers to their filmy, or membranous, wings. A huge number of species are parasitoids as larvae. Mouth parts primarily mandibulate, often modified for chewing and lapping Abdomen usually basally constricted and its first segment fused with metathorax forming propodeum Ovipositor in higher families modified into a … [11] The larvae of stinging forms (Aculeata) generally have 10 pairs of spiracles, or breathing pores, whereas parasitic forms usually have nine pairs present.[16].

The Aculeata, Ichneumonomorpha, and Proctotrupomorpha were monophyletic.

[17] Fertilized eggs get two sets of chromosomes (one from each parent's respective gametes) and develop into diploid females, while unfertilized eggs only contain one set (from the mother) and develop into haploid males. Nearly all commonly encountered Hymenoptera can be recognized by a narrow "waist." Hymenopterans range in size from very small to large insects, and usually have two pairs of wings.

Other general characteristics of Hymenoptera include chewing (mandibulate) mouthparts and two pairs of membranous wings, the forewings much larger than hindwings.
Hymenoptera is one of the largest orders of insects. Agriculture Canada Research Branch Monograph no. Species that display central fusion with reduced recombination include the ants Platythyrea punctata[24] and Wasmannia auropunctata[25] and the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis. The form of thelytoky in hymenopterans is a kind of automixis in which two haploid products (proto-eggs) from the same meiosis fuse to form a diploid zygote. [20], Another consequence is that hymenopterans may be more resistant to the deleterious effects of inbreeding. Different species of Hymenoptera show a wide range of feeding habits. They have an unconstricted junction between the thorax and abdomen. As males are haploid, any recessive genes will automatically be expressed, exposing them to natural selection. Many Hymenoptera also have wings that are reduced (brachypterous) or absent (apterous).

Mol Phylogenet Evol, Davies, N.R. Sawflies and Horntails. Sense organs appear to be poorly developed, with no ocelli, very small or absent antennae, and toothlike, sicklelike, or spinelike mandibles. Thus, another plausible etymology involves Hymen, the Ancient Greek god of marriage, as these insects have "married wings" in flight. In general, the anus only opens at the completion of larval growth. Diploid males are known to be produced by inbreeding in many ant, bee, and wasp species. [6] The Ancient Greek ὑμήν (hymen) for membrane provides a plausible etymology for the term because species in this order have membranous wings. [25], Single queen colonies of the narrow headed ant Formica exsecta illustrate the possible deleterious effects of increased homozygosity. Colonies of this species which have more homozygous queens will age more rapidly, resulting in reduced colony survival.[27].

[17] In these species, haploids are male and diploids heterozygous at the sex locus are female, but occasionally a diploid will be homozygous at the sex locus and develop as a male, instead. The smaller species may have only two or three hamuli on each side, but the largest wasps may have a considerable number, keeping the wings gripped together especially tightly.

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