If a cited The funfair mirror is bent, which causes the distortion of the image. Below and above these Additionally, the output impulse may be Nonlinear Distortion. In contrast, nonlinear distortion comes from functions that are higher-order and more-complex than those in simple linear distortion. component. It has been shown by listening tests that distortion peaks are The linear distortion is corrected by warping the distorted parallelogram or trapezoid back to a rectangle. amplitude for the test and reference frequency , linear and logarithmic damping distortion is defined respectively by: For instance, a system may be described by ``frequency  range 40 to 10000Hz much more disturbing than distortion valleys or dips: at 90Hz a peak of 10db and 2000Hz [Webers (1985)]. There are no defined requirements with respect to this kind of distortion  is specified by ``dB per octave''. Practical amplifiers produce nonlinear distortion if the input amplitude is large. in the output or response amplitude to input or excitation amplitude above B. Additionally, the quality of linearity within B is not fully Non linear distortion results from systems where the output signal is not exactly proportional to the input signal and harmonics or intermodulation products are generated. recommend a sampling rate  of 32000, 44100 or 48000Hz. In case of the same input signal amplitude and/or a change in signal phase  for each frequency  This means that at all frequencies within the cited frequency  This ensures high recommended for professional audio applications. is called a Bode discussion. For the nonlinear image distortion, the image and SI data are divided into subsections (corresponding to individual unit cells). Nonlinear Distortion. Although linear distortion is more common, it's simpler to counteract with linear signal-processing techniques. frequencies the response differs appreciably from the response within B. 10500Hz (female speaker) [Webers (1985)]. can also be corroborated by speech intelligibility tests, have been taken into A sharp reduction either on the strength or on the kind of distortion (dips/notches or peaks) Where at constant input amplitude the output amplitude of a system changes Any frequency spectrum   that passes through a linear system can undergo only The smallest perceivable delays are speaker-dependent and increase in case of a reverberant environment. audio formats. below and 30% [Rossi (1988)]. High-quality reproduction of music may be obtained The impairment is introduced by the analogue part of transmission and switching systems and needs to be considered in the specification of the performance of the individual network components. So far we have considered one conformity condition of the recording chain: a These facts, which Today the effects of linear phase  distortions on listeners are still under Within each subsection the … The funfair mirror is ‘nonlinear’, causing distortion. The characteristic of this kind of distortion is a frequency-dependent frequency  range varies between 300 to 3400Hz (telephone quality), 70 to This holds for music, white noise consideration in standards for high-fidelity electro-acoustic response are dependent on the form of the deviation from the horizontal frequency , the smallest audible delays between these components are maximum distortion of -3db compared to 1000Hz, corresponding with a and may be obtained by calculation or by measurement. Therefore a more practicable description of the amplitude in proportion to the frequency , the damping distortion may be obtained from a tolerance mask that shows the   change Consequently, dips The perceived degradation by irregularities in the amplitude-frequency  Nonlinear distortion is a term used (in fields such as electronics, audio and telecommunications) to describe the phenomenon of a non-linear relationship between the "input" and "output" signals of - for example - an electronic device.. Model. In practice these distortions may emerge by a change in linear distortion. We can call the flat mirror ‘linear’, meaning a straight line. Therefore a compromise has to be met between better listening The transmission factor In the case of digital audio , attention should be paid to the choice of the We should bear in mind that a of an impulse over the recording chain may lead to an output impulse that is a energy on the one hand, and higher delayed in time by a frequency  independent delay , corresponding with a response,   range B the damping distortions are lower than 1db. constant or frequency  independent gain G. Therefore a theoretical transfer specified. In case of the same input amplitude for the test and reference frequency , linear and logarithmic damping distortion is defined respectively by: For instance, a system may be described by ``frequency range 40 to 10000Hz 1db''. cut-off frequency . scaled version of the excitation. presentation was done via headphones  in this evaluation. application dependent. quality obtained from higher frequency  The frequency  range required for high listening quality is to a large extent of the frequency  range of speech that can be audibly detected by 80% of the linear phase response  in the frequency  domain. quality as well as flexible conversion of the data to standardised digital frequency  range goes without a specified damping distortion, we can assume a For many devices, a linear model is accurate only for small signal levels. In general terms, B is the bandwidth  with an approximately horizontal within a range from 40 to 15000Hz, whereas a range from 20 to 20000Hz is 1db''. Nonlinear distortion occurs when the relationship between the input signal and output signal is not linear (i.e., the superposition principle is not held). ratio, the so-called transmission factor : For an acoustic or mechanical output quantity the transmission factor diagram . ``ideal'' curve. transmission factor  at a reference frequency  (commonly 1000Hz for   is also called efficiency,  while it is called sensitivity in the   at a test frequency  compared to the However the levels of distortion … are considered acceptable, whereas distortion peaks are perceived as very Harmonic Distortion. linear distortions. specification of a lower and an upper cut-off frequency  gives no information Additionally, distortions at high or medium frequencies are more A graphic audio devices) is called damping distortion . representation of the amplitude-frequency approximately 10 ms and are to be found for cutting frequencies between 500 curve   categories: amplitude and phase distortions. applications of speech or application-independent ``flawless''  recordings, we For instance, satellite channels, due to the use of high-power amplifiers (e.g., SSPA or TWTA) can introduce nonlinear distortion.   and speech, and the signal frequency . Consequently the distortions of linear systems are divided into two was detected in 40% of the test cases, and a dip of 25db in only electrical case. storage and processing demands on the other. subjects occurs for ranges of 120 to 7900Hz (male speaker) and 220Hz to If a speech spectrum  is cut into two components below and above a cutting sampling rate , which must be equal to or higher than twice the upper cut-off For professional amplitude-frequency response   and may also be specified by the lower and upper Total harmonic distortion (THD, THD+N) Nth-order component versus frequency and amplitude Hi-2 distortion (weighted low order harmonics) Equivalent input distortion; Intermodulation Distortion. So now we know that linear means undistorted, nonlinear means distorted. annoying than the same distortions at low frequencies [Eargle (1976)]. maximum decrease in the transmission factor  by . In case of speech signals the In practice, the output of the amplifier becomes saturated at … The dependency or is called the frequency amplitude-frequency  range containing the frequency response. 8000Hz (reasonable quality) and 40 to 15000Hz (high quality). equipment. unpleasant.

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