Triterpenoid saponins such as α-hederin (225) from ivy (Hedera helix, Araliaceae) leaves are also said to be toxic, though it is difficult to find suitable data recorded. Table II. C. rhexifolia serves as the host for the plume moth, Pletyptilia pica, and the larvae, moth frass, and adults were analyzed for alkaloids. E. David Morgan, Ian D. Wilson, in Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry, 1999, Steroidal saponins such as digitalin (224) from Digitalis purpurea (Scrophulariaceae) are toxic to many but not all insects. Aurones give brighter yellow coloration in flowers than chalcones and are found in a limited number of plant genera such as Antirrhinum (Scrophulariaceae), Cosmos bipinnatus (Asteraceae), and Limonium (Plumbaginaceae). The status of the 4 species names for the genus Diocirea recorded in The Plant List, are as follows: The status of the 4 names (including infraspecific names) for the genus Diocirea recorded in The Plant List, are as follows: The confidence with which the status of the 4 species names recorded in The Plant List for the genus Diocirea, are assigned as follows: The source of the species name record found in The Plant List for the genus Diocirea, are as follows: © The Plant List 2010 — BacoMind, on single oral administration, had a median lethal dose of 2400 mg/kg in rats (Joshua Allan et al., 2007). Major active constituents of BM include various alkaloids like brahmine, herpestine, and nicotine; saponins such as d-mannitol and hersaponin, acid A, and monnierin (Aguiar and Borowski, 2013; Le et al., 2015). Toxicity: ‘BacoMind,’ a standardized bacopa bioactive compound formulation derived from Bacopa monnieri and used as a memory enhancing agent, was evaluated for toxicity studies to confirm its safety (Joshua Allan et al., 2007; Pravina et al., 2007). The alcoholic extract of bacopa at doses of 20/40/80 mg/kg improved cognitive function and prevented neurodegeneration in the animal model of AD (Uabundit et al., 2010). A recent meta-analysis suggested that Bacopa monnieri has the potential to improve cognition (Kongkeaw et al., 2013). Later, the neurocognitive enhancement in healthy human subjects was confirmed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Neale et al., 2013). P. kurroa produced early relief from anorexia, nausea, and malaise compared to placebo group. Veronica), have four petals, but many have irregular shaped flowers with five petals, often joined to form a bell or tube, sometimes with two lips. BM popularly known as Brahmi, a name derived from the Lord Brahma, the creator god of the Hindu pantheon of deities, finds special mention in the Ayurvedic literature for its use in different mental conditions such as anxiety, poor cognitive abilities, and lack of concentration. Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family of flowering plants, one of 26 in the order Lamiales, containing about 65 genera and 1,700 species with worldwide distribution. You should refer instead to the current version of The Plant List. "Scrophulariaceae". The toxic oils are contained in the leaves and branchlets, but within the species, there is variation in the chemical characters and toxicity of the oils; not all strains of toxic species are toxic. The potential of Verbascum, Scrophularia, and Buddleja species for the prevention and cure of neurodegenerative diseases has been supported by various experimental studies by scientific researchers as well as by our research group. The neuroprotective effect of bacopa has also been demonstrated against paraquat- and rotenone-induced oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Hosamani & Muralidhara, 2009, 2010). The subject is discussed by Gershenzon and Croteau.291, R. Arora, ... M.S. The genus Diocirea is in the family Scrophulariaceae in the major group Angiosperms (Flowering plants). Shin-ichi Ayabe, ... Tomoyoshi Akashi, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Family: Scrophulariaceae, Order: Lamiales) It was proposed that 23 is either a kairomone feeding stimulant or results from incomplete metabolism and excretion (68). Necropsy and histopathological examination did not reveal any deteriorative changes (Joshua Allan et al., 2007). However, bacopa administration (300 mg for subjects under 90 kg and 450 mg for subjects over 90 kg, equivalent to 6 g and 9 g dried rhizome, respectively, for six weeks) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, showed significant improvement in retention of new information in 40- to 65-year-old healthy adults (Roodenrys et al., 2002). Analyses of the moths of P. pica predating on these species indicated the presence of 23 from samples hosted by C. sulphurea as well as C. rhexifolia. Plants must have developed four to five leaf pairs before long days are given. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Histologically, the pattern is unusual, as the injury to the hepatocytes occurs in periportal or midzonal regions accompanied by biliary hyperplasia (Fig. Flowers in spikes Most of them are herbaceous, with a few shrubs and climbers, with one genus of trees (Paulownia). The glycosides are made up of a sugar moiety and a non-sugar or aglycone moiety; classification into cardenolides or bufadienolides is based up on the aglycone having a five- or a six-membered lactone ring in the C17 position of the steroid nucleus respectively. Scrophulariaceae family includes 62 genera and about 1830 known species.. Click on the photo or the name of the plant for which you wish to see further information. This is a large plant family, with around 3000 species in around 200 genera, mainly found in the northern temperate regions of the world. ), Opposite or alternate leaves On the other hand, as aurones are found in a limited number of unrelated species, different types of enzymes could be involved in aurone biosynthesis.88,89. By comparison with leptorhabine (3) (77), it was suggested that the hydroxy group was located at C-5 rather than C-7. R. Arora, ... M.S. Chemical control is usually necessary. Whatever schedule one uses, long days should be provided during flower initiation and early development to increase floriferousness. Some animals live long enough to become photosensitized; others may die much more rapidly, with pulmonary edema. The roots and rhizomes are medicinally the most important parts and are in great demand in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine (Banerjee et al., 2008). 333−432. (2006) reported that administration of ethanolic extract of bacopa leaves at doses of 40/160 mg/kg for two and eight months reduced Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels in the cortex of PSAPP mice (Holcomb et al., 2006). The Acanthus and Bladderwort families also have figwort-like flowers. External links: These herbals work through activation of various pathways to improvise memory and learning abilities that may bring some symptomatic relief to Alzheimer’s patients following dementia in the early stages of the disorder (Srivastava and Yadav, 2016). Scrophulariaceae and Buddlejaceae contain a considerable number of medicinal plants. Some of them are semi-parasitic (Hay Rattle, Lousewort). Springer. Most of them are herbaceous, with a few shrubs and climbers, with one genus of trees (Paulownia). (2001) reported significant improvement in verbal learning, memory consolidation, and faster information processing following bacopa administration (containing 55% combined bacosides) for 12 weeks at a dose of 300 mg daily in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers (age 18–60 years, n=46; Stough et al., 2001). A subchronic oral toxicity study for 90 days in rats at the dose levels of 85/210/500 mg/kg did not reveal any evidence of toxicity with respect to clinical signs, neurological examination, weight gain, or hematological parameters. P. Allen Hammer, in Introduction to Floriculture (Second Edition), 1992. Stough et al. Therefore, these plants seem to hold potential for further investigation and their development for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases where both in vitro and in vivo studies support activity. Scrophulariaceae and Buddlejaceae contain a considerable number of medicinal plants. miniata, also yielded 23 as the major alkaloid, concentrated in the seeds and flowers (35). Necropsy and histopathological examination did not reveal any deteriorative changes (Joshua Allan et al., 2007). I. Irem Tatli, ... Zeliha S. Akdemir, in Bioactive Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements in Neurological and Brain Disease, 2015. It contains no crop plants of great economic importance but is notable for many ornamental garden plants, such as butterfly bush ( Buddleja ), Diascia , Nemesia , and many others. Bacopa monnieri, belonging to the Scrophulariaceae family and commonly called ‘Brahmi,’ is known for its revitalizing and nootropic activities in Ayurvedic medicine as it strengthens memory and intellect (Medhya; Kumar, 2006; Singh, 2013; Singh et al., 2008). The yield of 23 was not altered depending on whether NH3 or NaOH was used for basification. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 15 patients with acute viral hepatitis were given P. kurroa root powder (375 mg, three times a day) for 2 weeks. Gross lesions include widespread hemorrhage and a pale yellow liver. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 38 healthy volunteers (ages 18–60 years), a single dose of 300 mg of Bacopa monnieri extract (containing 55% combined bacosides A and B) did not cause any significant change in cognitive function at two hours (Nathan et al., 2001). ‘Portia’ is earlier; thus seeding can be delayed 2 weeks if the two cultivars are flowered together. A. Srivastava, ... A.B. By comparison with leptorhabine (3) (77), it was suggested that the hydroxy group was located at C-5 rather than C-7. The stereochemistry of rhexifoline was deduced from NOE studies, in which irradiation of H-5 enhanced H-6β at 2.03 ppm, but not H-6α at 2.43 ppm. Moe (1977b) has divided Calceolaria cultivars into four groups according to flower and plant size: Grandiflora, with 1.5- to 2-inch wide flowers on 12- to 16-inch plants; Grandiflora primula compacta, with 1.8- to 2-inch wide flowers on 8-inch plants; Multiflora, with 1.2- to 1.6-inch wide flowers on 10- to 12-inch plants; and Multiflora nana, with 0.8- to 1.2-inch wide flowers on 12-inch plants. 2-95A, B). Modified from. In another double-blind, placebo-controlled study, acute treatment with bacopa showed an improvement in the cognitive performance of normal healthy volunteers (Downey et al., 2013). E. David Morgan, Ian D. Wilson, in Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry, 1999, Steroidal saponins such as digitalin (224) from Digitalis purpurea (Scrophulariaceae) are toxic to many but not all insects. The flowers are solitary or arranged in branched or unbranched inflorescences. These properties seemed also to be responsible for the effects on the immune system (Negi et al., 2008). The aqueous extract of kutki is also effective in decreasing fasting blood glucose and hyperlipidemia, increasing glucose tolerance and liver glycogen content, and preventing body weight loss in type 1 diabetic rats (Husain et al., 2009). High-resolution mass spectrometry established the molecular formula as C11H13NO3, which was followed by a major fragment ion at m/z 174, reflecting losses of H20 and a methyl radical. Histologically, the pattern is unusual, as the injury to the hepatocytes occurs in periportal or midzonal regions accompanied by biliary hyperplasia (Fig.

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