Simon Pirani, Jonathan Stern, and Katja Yafimava, "The Russo-Ukrainian gas dispute of January 2009: a comprehensive assessment", (Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2009). (The other possible transit country, Romania, has its own gas reserves and is considered a lost cause politically by Russia; the next countries on the transit route, Serbia and Hungary, could always be counted on to support the project.81) The alleged corruption involved in the SSPP construction in Bulgaria dominated the country’s election campaigns and its media, with reports stating that a secret meeting took place between the Bulgarian Prime Minister and the head of Gazprom.82 According to the European Council on Foreign Relations, the projected price of SSPP in Bulgaria, 7 million euros per kilometer, was more than twice what a similar pipeline construction would cost in Germany.83 The difference between the prices was interpreted as a "sophisticated type of corruption" that would, through subcontractors, benefit different political actors in Bulgaria—and that "same mechanism would work in Serbia as well. Europe 'Breaking Free From US' to Pave the Way for South Stream Pipeline. The joint venture South Stream AG, equally owned by Gazprom and Eni, was registered on 18 January 2008 in Switzerland. For a detailed description of the technologies, please see the Cookie and Automatic Logging Policy. Figure 2: The share of natural gas, natural gas from Gazprom, and natural gas from Gazprom via Ukraine for EU member states. [5][37][38], On 25 July 2013, the Vice Premier of the Republic of Macedonia Zoran Stavreski signed an agreement on linking a section through Republic of Macedonia with South Stream. 100  For example, see Ulrich Speck, "German Power and the Ukraine Conflict," Carnegie Europe (2015); Stefan Meister, "Reframing Germany’s Russia Policy – An opportunity for the EU," European Council on Foreign Relations, policy brief (2014); T. Dolidze, "EU Sanctions Policy towards Russia: The Sanctioner-Sanctionee’s Game of Thrones," CEPS working document (2015). 11  Philip Stevens, "‘Fragmentation’ and ‘identity’ are reshaping the world," Financial Times, December 18, 2014. The EU consumers have paid billions of euros for transportation of Russian gas via Ukraine, but country's pipeline system has not been modernized yet, CEO of oil and gas company Wintershall, Mario Mehren, said Tuesday. Gazprom, has been appointed as a general design contractor. See, K. C Smith, K. C. 2008. {"type":"ROADMAP","minzoom":false,"maxzoom":false,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","width":"400px","height":"300px","centre":{"text":"","title":"","link":"","lat":43.740631200000003,"lon":28.6458695,"icon":""},"title":"","label":"","icon":"","lines":[{"text":"","title":"","link":"","strokeColor":"#FF0000","strokeOpacity":"1","strokeWeight":"2","pos":[{"lat":45.855134,"lon":41.596827500000003},{"lat":44.075308999999997,"lon":39.058942500000001},{"lat":43.224777400000001,"lon":27.863831399999999},{"lat":43.216800399999997,"lon":24.556903399999999},{"lat":40.676100699999999,"lon":22.963842400000001},{"lat":40.592758699999997,"lon":22.496880399999998},{"lat":40.077759,"lon":22.502330400000002},{"lat":39.575773300000002,"lon":20.1786794},{"lat":40.630381700000001,"lon":17.909959400000002}]},{"text":"","title":"","link":"","strokeColor":"#FF0000","strokeOpacity":"1","strokeWeight":"2","pos":[{"lat":43.216800399999997,"lon":24.556903399999999},{"lat":43.877749000000001,"lon":22.397011500000001},{"lat":44.6917726,"lon":20.8863485},{"lat":46.0920019,"lon":19.496534499999999}]},{"text":"","title":"","link":"","strokeColor":"#FF0000","strokeOpacity":"1","strokeWeight":"2","pos":[{"lat":46.0920019,"lon":19.496534499999999},{"lat":48.059485799999997,"lon":17.0729705}]},{"text":"","title":"","link":"","strokeColor":"#FF0000","strokeOpacity":"1","strokeWeight":"2","pos":[{"lat":46.0920019,"lon":19.496534499999999},{"lat":46.826127499999998,"lon":17.881501499999999},{"lat":46.137753799999999,"lon":14.5086555},{"lat":46.671863600000002,"lon":13.635199500000001}]}],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"visitedicon":"","wmsoverlay":false,"zoom":4,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview","rotate"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"resizable":false,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"cluster":false,"clustergridsize":60,"clustermaxzoom":20,"clusterzoomonclick":true,"clusteraveragecenter":true,"clusterminsize":2,"imageoverlays":[],"kml":[],"gkml":[],"searchmarkers":"","fullscreen":false,"scrollwheelzoom":false,"locations":[]}. Here, Bulgaria emerged as the main field on which SSPP geoeconomics would play out. 1 (2010): 57–66; Nijaz Dizdarevic, "Regulatory Aspects Behind a Realization of the South Stream," Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence 12, no. In the post-Cold War era, energy security and trade between the European Union and Russia was projected to be the glue that bound the two powers together in peaceful and prosperous trade relations based on mutual benefit and interdependence.1 This partnership was projected even despite the growing asymmetry between liberal approaches to energy sector development in the EU and the illiberal, state-centric Russian approach.2 Today, however, energy trade between these powers reflects a broader geoeconomic struggle in which economic means are used to advocate geopolitical goals. [38] The 931-km (578-mi) offshore section was to run from the Russkaya compressor station through the Black Sea to Galata near Varna, Bulgaria. 1 (2009): 159-84. サウス・ストリーム計画は、同じく計画中のナブッコ・パイプラインのライバルプロジェクトとみなされている 。 ナブッコの総工費は約120億〜150億ユーロとみられるため、およそ倍の費用がかかるサウス・ストリーム計画の実現可能性を疑う声もある 。. See also Ksenia Galouchko, "Ruble slides most in emerging markets on sanctions," Bloomberg, November 13, 2014; Katherine Hille, "Ruble suffers worst fall since 1998 crisis," Financial Times, December 4, 2014; and Council Regulation (EU) No 833/2014 of 31 July 2014 concerning restrictive measures in view of Russia’s actions destabilising the situation in Ukraine. [48][49], The pipeline was to consist of the Russian onshore pipeline, the Black Sea section, and pipelines in southeast Europe. 1 (1990/91): 23-33. "16 The rise of geoeconomics by no means suggests that economic liberalism, rules-based multilateralism with legal treaties, or the geopolitics of conventional military power are concepts of the past. Marine Lubricants. El South Stream (en ruso: Южный Поток, en búlgaro: Южен поток, en serbio: Jужни ток/Južni tok, en húngaro: Déli Áramlat) fue un gasoducto propuesto para el transporte de gas natural de Rusia hasta el Mar Negro a través de Bulgaria, hasta Italia y Austria. «Russia prefers South Stream over Blue Stream II», «DownstreamToday.com - News and Information for the Downstream Oil and Gas Industry», «Putin cancela la construcción de un gasoducto clave para Europa», «Eni, Gazprom set up company for South Stream gas pipeline», «EDF in talks on stake in South Stream pipeline», «France's EDF to get a slice of South Stream pipeline», «Putin:Russia Cannot Continue South Stream Construction in Current Situation», «Russia drops South Stream gas pipeline plan», https://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=South_Stream&oldid=119908066, Wikipedia:Artículos con enlaces externos rotos, Licencia Creative Commons Atribución Compartir Igual 3.0. brought into question several pre-existing Gazprom practices, including the use of its dominant position and long-term contracts, property rights for gas transmission pipelines and their exclusive operation, numerous re-nomination rights per day, buying separate entry/exit capacity at cross border points, and others. Aalto, ed., The EU-Russian Energy Dialogue: Europe’s Future Energy Security (UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2008); and Evert Faber Van Der Meulen, "Gas Supply and EU–Russia Relations," Europe-Asia Studies 61, no. On a broader level, the SSPP case study highlights the incompatibility of geoeconomic and traditional geopolitical strategies. The two pipeline strings will then run further through the Balkan Peninsula to Italy and Austria. [79] To avoid Ukraine's exclusive economic zone, the pipeline was re-routed through Turkish waters. On our unique strengths and skills. 6  For an analysis of the crisis, see Jonathan Stern, "The Russian-Ukrainian gas crisis of January 2006" (Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2006). Balkan States Face Heavy Toll From South Stream Cancellation - Serbian FM. Energy Policy 36 no. 66  The relevant EU legislation consists of Directives and Regulations from the Third Package, consisting of Directive 2009/72/EC, Directive 2009/73/EC, Regulation (EC) no. "32  The non-energy-related function of these arrangements was to ensure stability and integration.33  Against this legalistic and multilateral stance, the emerging Russian position was a profoundly geoeconomic one, based on bilateral, state-centric and sovereignity-bound practices. For more information. 80  Andrew Byrne, "Hungary paves way for Gazprom pipeline," Financial Times, November 5, 2014. Our work is based on passion and innovation. 2 (2011): 119-27. 994/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 October 2010 concerning measures to safeguard security of gas supply and repealing Council Directive 2004/67/EC. The South Stream pipeline is a Russian-Italian-French-German project for the construction of gas pipeline to be laid across the bottom of the Black Sea from Anapa to the Bulgarian port of Varna. Russian Energy Ministry Receives No Offer From Bulgaria on South Stream Restart. 7  David Collier, "Understanding Process Tracing," Political Science and Politics 44, no. EU political institutions, including the European Council, the European Parliament, and the Commission, have repeatedly taken stands in favor of a common foreign energy policy strategy that looks beyond the single market, underscoring the need for a strategic foreign policy approach in energy relations.45 Several member states have joined the position. Esta página se editó por última vez el 2 oct 2019 a las 22:15. Industrial Lubricants [5][64], At least two gas storage facilities would be constructed of which one would be an underground storage facility in Hungary with a minimum capacity of 1 billion cubic meters (30 billion cubic feet) and another one in Banatski Dvor, Serbia with capacity of 3.2 billion cubic meters (110 billion cubic feet). For years, Russia used its allies such as Germany, Hungary and Bulgaria in rejecting integration, transparency, and cooperation with neighboring countries, and successfully managed to thwart advances and delay the legal process. 75  "Austria defies US, EU over South Stream during Putin visit," Deutsche Welle, June 25, 2014. While Germany has had a very successful and profitable track record of doing business in Russia, this has come with a price. Luttwak, "From Geopolitics to Geoeconomics: Logic of Conflict, Grammar of Commerce. Italy, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Hungary are seeking to boost purchases of Russian hydrocarbons. 3 (2011): 31-45; Ana Martiningui and Richard Youngs, eds., Challenges for European Foreign Policy in 2012: What kind of geo-economic Europe? "12 Simultaneously, in Russia, its integration in international trade increased export revenues, and Russia became a major host for foreign direct investment.13, However, after the U.S.-centric "unipolar moment" of the 1990s, there has been an increasing tendency for regional powers to consider issues of trade and commerce through the prisms of national security and foreign policy.14 As such, an emerging body of literature examines geoeconomics as a rising framework of foreign policy analysis.15 Scholars seem to concur, even if they do not use the term "geoeconomics," and analyze world politics under the general banners of "zero-sum world," "multipolarity," or "multipolar order. [24] For construction of the Croatian section a 50-50 Russian-Croatian joint company will be established. It was intended to be a direct competitor to the planned extension of the existing Blue Stream pipeline, which runs from Turkey across Europe through Bulgaria and Romania to Hungary.

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